2016年职称英语卫生类A级真题及答案(第4部分)

职称英语考试考试网 鲤鱼小编 更新时间:2017-06-26

      第4部分:阅读理解

  下面有3篇短文,每篇短文后有5道题。请根据短文内容,为每题确定1个最佳选项。

  第一篇

  Young Adults Who Exercise Get Higher IQ Scores

  Young adults who are fit have a higher IQ and are more likely to go on to university ,reveals a major new study carried out at the Sahlgrenska Academy and Sahlgrenska University Hospital.

  The results were published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science( PNAS). The study involved l. 2 million Swedish men doing military service who were born between 1950 and 1976. The research group analyzed the results of both physical and IQ tests the youngesters took right after they started serving the army.

  The study shows a clear link between good physical fitness and better results for the IQ test. The strongest links are for logical thinking and verbal comprehension. But it is only fitness that plays a role in the results for the IQ test, and not strength. "Being fit means that you also have good heart and lung capacity and that your brain gets plenty of oxygen, " says Michael Nilsson, professor at the Sahlgrenska Academy and chief physician at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital. "This may be one of the reasons why we can see a clear link with fitness, but not with muscular strength. We are also seeing that there are growth factors that are important. "

  By analyzing data for twins, the researchers have been able to determine that it is primarily environmental factors 'and not genes that explain the link between fitness and a higher IQ.

  "We have also shown that those youngsters who improve their physical fitness between the ages of 15 and 18 increase their cognitive performance," says Maria Aberg, researcher at the Sahlgrenska Academy and physician at Aby health center. "This being the case, physical education is a subject that has an important place in schools, and is an absolute must if we want to do well in math and other theoretical subjects. "

  The researchers have also compared the results from fitness tests during national service with the socio-economic status of the men later in life. Those who were fit at 18 were more likely to go into higher education, and many secured more qualified jobs.

  31 The researchers in this study come from

  A Aby health centre.

  B the Swedish army.

  C the National Academy of Science.

  32 Which of the following is an indication of physical fitness?

  A Brain size.

  B Good lung capacity.

  C Clear logical thinking.

  D Muscular strength.

  33 By enhancing physical fitness, one could improve the following EXCEPT

  A emotional behavior.

  B cognitive performance.

  C heart capacity.

  D verbal comprehension.

  34 The study findings include the following EXCEPT that

  A growth factors are significant for a person's IQ.

  B young adults who are fit get higher scores in IQ tests.

  C young people who are muscular and strong have a higher IQ.

  D youngsters who are fit will more likely get college education.

  35 The word "secured" in the last paragraph is closest in meaning to

  A insured. B assured. C obtained. D studied

  参考答案:DBACC

  第二篇 Social Anxiety Disorder

  Social anxiety disorder prevents some 15 million Americans from leading normal social and romantic lives, a new survey finds.

  The disorder leaves many isolated, ashamed (害羞的) and often misdiagnosed. Thirty-six percent of those with social anxiety disorder have symptoms for 10 years or more before seeking help, the Anxiety Disorders Association of America reports.

  " Social anxiety disorder is when somebody has an intense, persistent and irrational fear of social or performance situations," Jerilyn Ross, the Association's president and CEO,said during a teleconference Wednesday.

  "The condition causes people to avoid common, everyday situations and even other people for fear of being judged or criticized or humiliated or embarrassing themselves ,"Ross said.

  Social anxiety disorder can interfere with daily routines and job performance, Ross noted. "It also makes it very difficult for people to develop friendships and romantic partnerships," she said.

  People with this disorder recognize their fear is excessive and irrational, Ross noted.

  "But they feel powerless to do anything about it," she said.

  Social anxiety disorder can start in the early teens, Dr. Mark H. Pollack, director of the Center for Anxiety and Traumatic (心灵创伤的) Stress Disorders and a professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, said during the teleconference.

  "This is a disorder that starts affecting people early on," Pollack said. "The typical age of onset (开始) is early adolescence, age 12 0r 13, and many individuals report a history of anxiety dating back to earlier childhood. "

  The disorder also has physical symptoms, including heart palpitations (心陲) , feelings that their throat will close up, sweating, blushing, faintness, trembling and stammering,Ross said.

  Among people with the disorder, 75 percent said the condition affected their ability to do normal activities. In addition, 69 percent said they didn't want people to think they were crazy, and 58 percent said they were embarrassed by their condition, Ross said.

  However, when the condition was diagnosed and treated, many reported improvement in their lives. In fact, 59 percent who were receiving treatment said that treatment had a positive effect on their ability to have a romantic relationship. In addition, 39 percent who had received treatment said knowing that treatment could be successful aided their decision to get help, Ross noted.

  36 Which of the following is NOT true of the people with social anxiety disorder?

  A They find it difficult to make friends.

  B They are often isolated and ashamed.

  C They frequently fail to get timely treatment

  D They tend to criticize other people.

  37 People with the disorder think that their fear is

  A justified. B beneficial. C controllable D beyond control

  38.Usually the disorder starts to affect people when

  A they fall in love.

  B they begin to work.

  C they get married.

  D they are in their early teens.

  39.All the following are likely symptoms of the disorder EXCEPT

  A heart palpitations. B sweating.

  C sore throat. D blushing.

  40.The last paragraph indicates that treatment of the disorder

  A had no positive effect on those affected.

  B was unavailable to those affected.

  C was often rejected by those affected.

  D could improve the life of those affected.

  参考答案:DDDCD

  第三篇 Ear Breakthrough

  New research published in the journal Current Biology has added significantly to our understanding of how the ear works, giving hope to millions of deaf and hard of hearing people.

  The latest research, conducted by Dr.Jorg T.Albert, a Deafness Research UK research fellow at the UCL Ear Institute, together with scientists at the University of Cologne, shows that fruit flies have ears which mechanically amplify sound signals in a remarkably similar way to the sensory (感觉的 ) cells found in the inner ear of vertebrates (脊椎动物) including humans. The finding means that the wealth of genetic techniques already available to study the fruit fly can now be used to target how the ear works.

  Dr. Albert says, "The biophysical parallels between the ways both fruit flies and humans convert sound into nerve signals are truly amazing. We may be allowed to hope that these mechanistic (机械学的) similarities extend further down to the genes and molecules that bring about hearing. But even if it finally should turn out that hearing in fruit flies relies on afferent molecules than does hearing in humans, the little fruit fly can help us find answers to some key questions of hearing research and-what is sometimes even more important- The work is welcomed by Deafness Research UK, the country's only medical research charity for deaf people. Vivienne Michael, chief executive of Deafness Research UK, says, ";This is an important advance that paves the way toward a clear understanding of the genetics of deafness. The charity will continue to support cutting-edge (尖端的) research through its Fellowship programme at the UCL Ear Institute and at other top-,research centers in the UK to achieve our goal of securing radical improvements in the prevention, diagnosis and treatments of all forms of hearing impairment. "

  There are nine million deaf and hard of hearing people in the UK and in most cases deafness results from loss of sensory cells in the inner ear known as "hair" cells. The cells can be damaged and lost through ageing, noise, genetic defects and certain drugs and, because the cells don't regenerate, the result is progressive-and irreversible-hearing loss. Damage- to these cells can als0 1ead to tinnitus (耳鸣) , which affects around five million people in the UK.

  41 A person who is har4 0f.,it hearing is

  A totally deaf from birth

  B not able to hear pjl70p——ai;rily.

  C unwilling to listen to others.

  D ignorant of how the ear works.

  42 Quite a number of genetic techniques have been used

  A to target how the ear works.

  B to stimulate sensory cells.

  C to amplify sound sign.

  D to study the fruit fly.

  43 Fruit flies and humans share similarities in how they

  A convert sound into nerve signals.

  B ask and answer questions.

  C pass on their genes.

  D reproduce.

  44 Vivienne Michael frorn.Deafness'f:t9fsearch UK highly appreciates

  A the genetics of deafness.

  B the charity's Fellowship programme.

  C the latest research conducted by Dr.Aibert.

  D improvements in treating hearing impairment.

  45 Hearing loss caused by damage to the sensory cells

  A can affect five million people in the UK.

  B can be progressively repaired. .

  C cannot lead to tinnitus.

  D cannot be cured.

  参考答案: BDACD 

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