2018年职称英语考试技巧:完成句子学习方法

职称英语考试考试网 鲤鱼小编 更新时间:2017-06-22

 怎样做完成句子

  一、题型介绍

  在全国职称英语等级考试中,完成句子是一种比较新颖的题型。这种题型通常是先给出一篇300词左右的短文,短文后给出五个不完整的句子,一般是缺少一个词,要求考生在理解短文的基础之上,完成这五个句子,即把丢掉的词根据原文的内容给填出来。尽管每个句子都缺少一个词,但如果要填的词比较难,题目设计者提供了所要填的词的第一个字母或前两三个字母,这样难的题目就变得相对容易些了。

  由于完成句子这种题型比较新颖,在目前我国其它类型的大规??际灾猩心┦褂霉?,许多应试者对该题望而生畏,有的甚至干脆放弃了这一部分。实际上大可不必如此,因为完成句子在本质上只不过是我们常见的阅读理解题型的一种变体,或叫简答题,考生根据自己对于文章的内容的理解从四个先项中先出一个正确的答案。而完成句子这种题型通常是先给出一篇短文,短文后给出五个不完整的句子,每个句子一般缺少一个词,要求考生在理解短文的基础之上,完成这五个句子,这些句子多半已改变了叙述的角度或者采用另一种廉洁,但是句子的内容往往是文章中某些内容的稞。因此,这种题型不过是把觉的阅读理解题型的四个选项去掉,只保留其题干部分,要求考生把不完整的题干(句子)补全。

  二、测试点

  完成句子主要是用来测试应试者的阅读理解能力和对英语词汇的使用能力,它的测试点与一般的阅读理解题型的测试点基本上一致。下面我们以全国职称英语等级考试理工类样题中的完成句子为例说明命题者是怎样测量考生这种阅读能力,并指出如何解答这类问题。

  Computers Can Read

  Computers can solve difficult problems and control the machines which are not simple. Many people use small computers called calculators to add, subtract, multiply, and divide numbers quickly. Scientists use large computers to solve many problems at the same time. You can play games with computers, and some computers can help you learn languages. The Reading Machine is a special kind of computer. It can read books for blind people.

  This machine consists fo three sections: a scanner (扫描仪), a computer, and a vioce synthesizer (合成器). These three parts are like your eyes, your brain, and your voice. The scanner is the "eye"of the machine. It scans, or looks at the words on the page of a book and changes them into signals. These signals then go to the computer, the "brain" of the machine. The computer analyzes (分析)the signals and r***gnizes the words and then sends information about the words to the vioce synthesizer. The voice synthesizer makes the sounds of the words.

  To use the machine, a blind person simply opens the book and puts it face down on the scanner. The machine reads the words on the page. When one page is finished, the blind person turns the page and puts the bllk on the scanner again. The reading Machine can read in a standard voice in a special fast voice. it can read words with small letters, large lettters, or italics (斜体).

  Blind people like the Reading Machine because they can "read" anything within newspapers, magazines, books, even typed letter. Many libraries now have Rading Machines for blind people to use. The Reading Machine can also help sighted children learn to read.

  Can the Reading machine help you to read in English? The computer can analyze the grammar of sentences, and the voice synthesizer can make the sounds of the words. However, the machine cannot explain the meanings of the words. To use the machine, you must know the meanins of the words and sentences first.

  1. The first paragraph is mainly concerned with the different u---------of the computers.

  从题目来看这个题目考察考生的概括大意的能力。虽然短文的第一段没有明确的主题句,但是读完此段我们就全感觉到,么一段是从几个不同的方面来讲述计算机的用途。而且在本段中use一词使用了两次,再加上本题答案为use。

  2. The computer, one of the three parts of the Reading Machine, is like the b---- of a human being.

  该题考察应试者把握文章中的事实与细节的能力。我们可以把它转化为这样的一个问题“电脑作为阅读机的三个组成部分之一,他的作用相当人的什么器官?”然后我们再到文章中寻找与此有关的内容,不难发现,与此有关的内容在短文的第二段的开始,This machine consists of three sections: a scanner, a computer, and a voice synthsizer. These three parts are like your eyes, your brain, and your voice. 阅读机包括扫描仪,电脑和合成器三个组成部分,扫描仪相当与人的眼睛,那么电脑也就相当于人的大脑了,因此,本题答案为brain。

  3. The Reading Machine can r***gnize the words with letters of differents s------.

  此题也是考察应试者把握文章中的事实与细节的能力。我们可以把这个句子转化为这样一个问题:“这种阅读机可以辩认什么样的单词?”文章第三段的最后一句话说阅读机可以识别小的字母,大的字母指的是字母的大小,即size;斜体字母早指的是字母的形状,即type,由于本题要求填入的第一个字母为s,所以答案为size。

  4. The Reading Machine may help blind people deal with all kinds of reading m------ such as newspapers, magazines and books.

  本题相对来说要简单一些,因为题目本身就已经给我们提供了足够的信息,newspapers, magazines 及 books 均属于读物,即阅读材料,而且在各种考试中我们都会见到reading materials。很明显,本题的答案为materials。

  5. People cannot find the e------ of the words while using the Reading Machine.

  第七题也是考罕应试者把握文章中的事实与细节的能力,题目本身可以转化为这样的问题:“在使用阅读机时,人们不能发现什么?”,与此相关的内容在短文的最后一段: However, the machine cannot explain the meanings of the words, 根据提示词"explain", 我们就应能填出它的名词形式"explanation"。

  请看大纲第14页的一篇短文: Television in the USA

  Thirty-four percent of the world's television sets are in the USA. But it is not fair that some foreigners have concluded that America has a TV culture. Still it is true that American TV has great-power and can make or break well-known people in fron of the camera. There are a thousand stations in the 50 states, and in most places there is a choice of five or six channels. The major networks (National Broadcasting Company, Columbia Broadcasting System and the American Broadcasting Compan) introduce a lot of new shows of every kind. Those dramas, soap operas, talk shows, news shows, and sport shows which are cuccessful, are relayed (转播)throughout American and are often sold abroad. Roots, by the black writer Alex Haley, for example, was sold all over the world.

  Nearly all TV in the USA is commercial, and programs are interrupted every quarter of an hour or so for advertisements. These breaks make people upset, expecially during some exciting action in a good film. However, commercials do make it possible to show programs on TV that are expensive to produce.

  There is one channel where there are no commercial breaks. Programs on this channel are run by the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) and can be seen all over the USA. Although the PBS gets a grant from the government, the government does not interfere in any way in the organization of its programs. There are programs on everyday affairs, music, the arts, as well as serious discussions on all kinds of topics. Some programs are supported by companies or institutions, but these organizations are not allowed to influence the content of a program.

  36. The conclusion made by some foreigners that America has a television culture is not f-------.

  本题答案为fair。本题很简单,因为问题等于把文章第一段的第二句话重说了一遍。

  37. A great number of new shows are introduced by the leading n---- in the USA.

  本题答案为networks。原文第一段有这样一句话:The major networks...introduce a lot of new shows of every kind。这里的major等于leading,由于空格处已给出要填词的首字母n,所以应填networks。

  38. There is just one c----without breaks for advertisements in the USA.

  本题答案为channel。答案见第三段第一句话。注意commercial breaks 就是指breaks for advertisements。

  39. While people are watching TV programs, breaks for advertisements can make them w------.

  本题答案为worried。本题考查考生能否理解原文中的upset (见第二段第二句话)这个词。即使不知道这个词的意思,考生也应该能够猜出来,因为正常的电视节目不断被商业广告打断,观众会十分生气的,在这里upset就是worried的意思。

  40. Although some companies supply money for some programs, they are not a-----to have influence upon the content of the programs in any way.

  本题答案为allowed。见文章最后一句话。

  三、解题步骤

  根据上述分析我们看出,完成句子主要考察应试者对于文章的主旨大意,事实与细节的把握能力,因此我们建议大家在做题时遵循下列的步骤:

  1、先看文章的标题。上面我们已经谈到,文章的题目高度概括了全文的意义??忌欢ㄒ谋渲还丝次恼露蛔⒁獗晏獾南肮?。了解了文章的标题,全文的意思也就心中有底了。它不仅对完成抓大意的题目有意义,而且对正确的完成其它句子也有一定的启示。

  2、看完标题后,紧接着通读全文,不要急于做题。了解了文章的大意及基本事实和细节后再完成后面的题目。如果边看题目边到文章中去寻找相关的句子会出现“支离破碎”和“断章取义”的现象,这对解题极为不利。

  3、通读完全文后,依次完成每个句子。对完全有把握的题目不必反复去看原文,对没有把握、做不上来的题目,要根据题意,回到文章中去寻找与题意相关的句子。找到后加以对照,找出异同点,往往这里面包含着解题信息。

  4、注意形式和内容的统一。有的词填上以后,虽然从句法的角度讲得通,但对照原文,意义上不一定能讲得通。所以在填每一个词时,要从句子的搭配、上下文、逻辑思维等几个方面综合考虑,仔细推敲。

  5、注意词形变化。补全每个单词后,要弄清补全的单词在该句中的句法万分和词性要求,也就是说要注意其词形变化。此外还要注意它的语法形式。如果该填的词是名词,就要考虑是否用复数;如果该填的词是形容词,是否需要比较级的形式;如果填的是动名词,就是考虑是用分词形式,动名词形式或不定式形式等等。这些细小的地方都不能忽略。 

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